Fredrick Douglass

Fredrick Douglass
Fredrick Douglass was born February 20, 1818 with the name Frederick Augustus Washington Bailey. He was born a slave, but he escaped and did many things like become an abolitionist, orator, writer, and statesman. (Wikipedia) He was raised by his grandmother Betsy Bailey where he was born. (Fredrick Douglass timeline) Fredrick Douglass once told a group of African American children: “What was possible for me is possible for you. Do not think because you are colored you cannot accomplish anything. Strive earnestly to add to your knowledge. So long as you remain in ignorance, so long will you fail to command the respect of your fellow men.” (America’s Library)
Fredrick Douglass was a great man, he is not mentioned much in most history books I have read, but he did great things. He was separated from his mother at birth, and didn’t see her much, but on some nights she would come to sleep with him to comfort him. (Wikipedia Fredrick Douglass timeline) He wrote several Autobiographies in his life time one of the more popular ones was Narrative of the Life of Fredrick Douglass. (Wikipedia) In 1824, he moved to a plantation on Wye River. In 1825 he saw his mother for the last time, because in 1826, she died. (Fredrick Douglass timeline)
Fredrick Douglass described his escape from slavery in one of his autobiographies. He took a train ride dressed as a sailor. He had a red shirt, a tarpaulin hat, and a scarf tied loosely around his neck. The next part of his disguise was his knowledge of ships; he had to know everything about ships there was to know. He needed the “free paperwork” that every black person in the United Stated had. He got papers for the protection of all sailors; they showed that he was indeed a citizen of the US. This is how the conversation went when the conductor reached Douglass in the crowded train car.
“I suppose you have your free papers?”
“No sir; I never carry my free papers to sea with me.”
“But you have something to show that you are a freeman, haven’t you?”
“Yes, sir, I have a paper with the American eagle on it, and that will carry me around the world.” If this man had looked more closely at the paper, then he would have seen that the name didn’t match Fredrick Douglass’s name and he wouldn’t have escaped. (America’s Library)
After Fredrick Douglass escaped from slavery he decided to become an abolitionist leader. He published a newspaper in New York called The North Star. He named it this because when slaves escaped, they followed the North Star. Douglass also held lectures on freedom. Even though he was a well known abolitionist, he was still subject to the laws separating “colored” people from “white” people. When he had to sit in the back of buses and trains, his hosts would feel sorry for him. He would say: “Gentlemen, by ignoble actions I may degrade myself, but nothing and no man can degrade Frederick Douglass.” Douglass is known today for his speaking ability. He inspired the crowd that he spoke to, but he wasn’t always confident enough to speak to thousands of people. First he was asked to talk about his experiences as a slave, he was nervous at first, but then he was much surer about his ability to speak in front of a crowd. He kept in touch with many, many other abolitionists. (America’s library)
Most African Americans were willing to fight in the civil war, but Abraham Lincoln wasn’t sure if it was right to enlist black people in the military. He consulted Fredrick Douglass on the issue he helped convince Abraham Lincoln that it was okay to let them be in the military. On the 1st of January, 1863, Abraham Lincoln released an Emancipation Proclamation making all slaves free and allowing them to sign up for the military. By the end of that war, over one hundred thousand African American men had joined the military. Douglass recruited men in all regions of the US, signing many African Americans up for the Union Army. He signed two of his sons up for this army. The both joined the 54th Massachusetts Regiment. This army was made of colored people fighting an incredibly harsh battle. Douglass’s third youngest son, who wrote to his father while he was in the army. In one letter Charles said he heard that “the colored people were rushing into Philadelphia and that yourself and . . . others were doing all you could for them.” (American Library)

These are the sources I used because I didn’t feel like going through and linking all the things I needed to link.

wikipedia

America’s library

Fredrick Douglass timeline

 

Chernobyl

Chernobyl seems to be way more interesting than you would think. Before the accident, Chernobyl was a social center. Chernobyl is a Ukrainian word for mugwort, a very common name for an herbaceous plant. In the 1500s the city was a crown village of Lithuania’s Grand Ducy. The city of Chernobyl was part of Poland. The nuclear reactor was put in by the government in 1977. Chernobyl was a poorly designed and poorly put together nuclear reactor in the first place. The meltdown was caused by tests to see how long the reactor would work if an accidental shut down occurred. The safety mechanisms were turned off and the reactor shut down for real. The radioactive materials grew in temperature and soon exploded. 31 were killed in the initial explosion and many more died from radiation poisoning. People die every day because of what happened in the nuclear reactor. The final death toll isn’t known and might not ever be. What once was known as a social center is now known as a ghost town. Many strange things have happened like strange mutations and the red forest.

People (specifically the elderly) have moved back to their old houses because they would rather die of radiation poisoning than of homesickness.
There’s an alternative etymology that Chernobyl was named after a combination of words chornyi and byllia, which literally mean “black grass” or “black stalks”. In 1569, the province housing Chernobyl became part of the Kingdom of Poland. When Russia, Prussia, and Austria dissolved Poland through a series of partitions, Chernobyl became a part of the Russian Empire in 1793. In the last half of the 18th century, Chernobyl became a major center of Hasidic Judaism; however, the Jewish population suffered greatly in the early 1900s when many Jews were killed by the Black Hundreds, an ultra-nationalist movement in Russia. In the Polish-Soviet War of 1919–1920, the city was taken first by the Polish Army, and then by the Red Army. Chernobyl was incorporated into the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic in 1921. The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant was commissioned by the government in 1977.

The unit 4 reactor was to be shut down for routine maintenance on the 25 of April 1986. It was decided to take advantage of this shutdown to determine whether, in the event of a loss of station power, the slowing turbine could provide enough electrical power to operate the main core cooling water circulating pumps, until the diesel emergency power supply became operative. The aim of this test was to determine whether cooling of the core could continue to be ensured in the event of a loss of power. Adequate coolant circulation following completion of the test was ensured by arranging power supplies to four of the eight pumps from station service power; the other four pumps were supplied by unit service power. If the workers had known what each other were doing, the meltdown could have been prevented.

Some of the wild animals have started living in the abandoned houses. Grotesque mutations have been reported. Most of the animals will not attack people because they already have enough food. Animals aren’t the only ones who are mutated; people have had some gross deformities too. A really cool thing is the red forest. It is a forest that after the meltdown the trees glowed red from the radiation. If a person walked far enough in they would start to glow. In my opinion the red forest is the most interesting part of Chernobyl.

Last but not least the creepiest part: The town of Kindergarten. The name of the place might not sound creepy, but don’t judge a book by its cover. Kindergarten was clearly once a pretty okay place, but not anymore. Now there are things scattered around like dolls, toys, and other things. Most of the pictures are self-explanatory, but it is extremely creepy. Kindergarten is not a town I would want to go to.